Bored to Fears

Do you get bored easily? Does time fly by for you, or does it always seem to drag? Is it easy for you to concentrate on activities, or do you often find your mind wandering? Is looking at a friend’s holiday photos your idea of a good time, or the tenth circle of Hell? According to a new study, which I conducted with Silan Eser, your answers to these kinds of questions can predict how strongly you believe conspiracy theories.

We surveyed a hundred and fifty people, and we found that the more prone to boredom someone was, the more they tended to believe conspiracy theories. Why might this be the case? It’s not immediately obvious why being a little bored would have anything to do with believing theories about secret plots and sinister cabals. Continue reading

Posted in Personality | Tagged , , , , , , | 6 Comments

The 2015 general election and conspiracy theories


Millions of people in the United Kingdom will head to the polling stations on Thursday (7th May) to vote in the 2015 general election. There will however be a large portion of people, whilst eligible, will not cast their vote.

Looking back at the 2010 general election, just 29.7 million out of the 45.6 million people eligible to vote did so. 15.9 million people therefore did not vote.

There may be many reasons for this, such as a disinterest in politics or the election process or competing time commitments. Another key contributor may however be the influence of exposure to conspiracy theories.

Research conducted by Karen Douglas and myself have explored this idea further. We found that when people were exposed to conspiracy theories that argued the government is involved in shady deals and plots, people reported reduced intentions to engage in the political process such as voting. This effect was explained by an increase in feelings of political powerlessness – which is the feeling that one’s action will not impact the political system.

Our research therefore suggests that exposure to government conspiracy theories may increase feelings that one’s action will have little impact, which may lower one’s intention to engage in political behaviours.

Vote for nobody

People need to vote. If people do not, such disengagement may be detrimental for society and could damage important social systems that are needed for society to function effectively.

Conspiracy theories, with the aid of the Internet, are becoming more popular. Twitter for example, is flourishing with conspiracy theories. This therefore begs the question: Will there be even less people out of the pool of eligible voters going to the polling stations on Thursday than in 2010?

Then, out of those who will not be voting, could conspiracy theories be playing a role? Research to date is suggesting they may be.

Posted in What's the harm | 9 Comments

Ebola virus conspiracy theories


“How do you think the Ebola virus come about?”

Created in a lab (on purpose) – 47%

Created in a lab (by accident) – 10%

Spread from bats/monkeys – 38%

Cannibalistic ritual cover-up – 5%

This is a poll question recently asked for a news website. Whilst there is unfortunately no indication on the number of respondents, most appear to endorse a conspiracy explanation, with the official explanation currently trailing 9% behind.

Conspiracy theories highlight inconsistencies or ambiguities in official accounts.  They can be seen to accompany many significant political and social events, such as the death of Diana, Princes of Wales, the U.S. government involvement in 9/11 and the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy.  The Ebola crisis can therefore be also added to the list.

Conspiracy theories allow people to address feelings of powerlessness and lack of control, avoid feelings of uncertainty and allow people to make sense of events. They also however, undermine confidence on important topics such as the workings of science.  This can have potentially detrimental consequences, where belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with lack of condom use and being less likely to seek treatment for HIV.  Exposure to conspiracy theories has also been found to reduce people’s intention to engage in the political system, take action against climate change and vaccinate a fictional child.

Similarly therefore with belief in conspiracy theories concerning the Ebola crisis, this could lead to people not taking the appropriate protection or seeking the recommended treatment.  For example, people who endorse such a viewpoint may avoid health workers who are trying to offer advice and support.  This may only lead to an increase in the spread of the virus.

Conspiracy theories may allow people to meet important psychological needs, but their consequences may be detrimental to society.  With Ebola cases increasing by the day, it is important that conspiracy theories are not just thought of as simply harmless fun and therefore of little concern. Instead conspiracy theories may have an alarming impact on social systems that should not be taken lightly.

Ebola is in danger of becoming a worldwide crisis, with the potential to reach 1.4 million cases by January, at what point should the conspiracy theories be challenged?

Posted in What's the harm | Tagged , , , | 13 Comments

Why tidying your desk might make conspiracy theories seem less plausible

A recent study by psychologists at the University of Amsterdam looked at the consequences of feeling ambivalent, with interesting implications for belief in conspiracy theories.

We experience ambivalence when we feel both good and bad about something at the same time. Imagine eating an entire tub of ice cream. You know it would be a delightful way to spend five minutes – but you probably also know it’d be pretty bad for you in the long run. That’s ambivalence. It’s a common experience. We all feel conflicting emotions about things at some time or another. But we don’t tend to enjoy the feeling. Psychologists have known for a while that ambivalence is an undesirable state of mind, leading to negative emotions and even, in extreme cases, mental health problems. We habitually seek order and consistency, and to be ambivalent is to experience disorder. When we feel ambivalence we sometimes try to diminish or overcome it by updating our beliefs so we can arrive at a more unequivocal attitude, or simply by ignoring and downplaying the importance of the beliefs. Continue reading

Posted in Biases & heuristics | Tagged , , , | 144 Comments

Anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and their potential impact on children’s health

MapThe Los Angeles Times recently published a piece titled: “Measles is spreading, and the anti-vaccine movement is the cause”, and as you can imagine, this caught my attention.

Recently, I have had an empirical paper published in the open-access journal PLOS ONE, with Karen Douglas, my co-author and PhD supervisor.  In two studies, we investigated the potential impact of anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs – such as the belief that research on vaccine efficacy is manipulated to make profits for pharmaceutical companies -, and exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, on vaccination intentions.

In the first study, we surveyed 89 parents about their views on anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and then asked them to indicate their intention to have a fictional child vaccinated.  It was found stronger belief in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories was associated with lower intentions to vaccinate.  This relationship was found to be explained by three factors: perceived dangers of vaccines, feelings of powerlessness and mistrust in authorities.

In the second study, using an experimental design, we aimed to replicate and extend these findings by investigating the casual relationship. To do this, we exposed 188 participants to information concerning anti-vaccine conspiracy theories or information refuting such theories.  We also included a control condition where no exposure occurred.  It was found that exposure to pro- conspiracy material reduced their intention to have a fictional child vaccinated, relative to those who were given refuting information, or in a control condition.  The same factors again explained this relationship (perceived dangers of vaccines, feelings of powerlessness and mistrust in authorities).

Referring back to the Los Angeles Times piece, our research certainly provides some evidence towards their conclusion.  Here, we suggest that anti-vaccine conspiracy theories may have more than a trivial effect on vaccination intentions.  Our work demonstrates empirically, and to our knowledge for the first time, that anti-vaccine conspiracy theories may therefore present an obstacle to vaccine uptake.  The implications of this work has the potential to be wide reaching, such as highlighting the importance of public policy taking in to account conspiracy theories (as discussed previously on this blog), and also calling for further investigations to identify the social consequences of conspiracism.

We also found some other interesting things as well – such as relating to the role of misinformation, and the potential for conspiracy information being resistant to correction. As PLOSONE is an open-access journal, where it is available to all, if you are interested in reading the whole paper, you can for free.

Posted in Social psychology, What's the harm | 38 Comments

What do you think happened to Malaysia Airlines flight MH370?

[Edit: The survey is now closed. Thanks to everyone who took part. You can read an article I wrote for New Scientist about this research by clicking here.]

We are conducting a survey of people’s opinions about what happened to the missing Malaysia Airlines flight MH370. If you have 7 or 8 minutes to spare, please take part in the research. It would also be a huge help if you can pass the link on to others who might like to take part via email, Facebook,  Twitter, or any other social media.

Posted in World events | Tagged , , , | 54 Comments

Should conspiracy theory research inform public policy?


Princess Diana was murdered by the Royal Family.  The U.S. government orchestrated the 9/11 terrorist attacks.  Pharmaceutical companies cover up evidence of harmful side effects of vaccines.  Each statement is a ‘conspiracy theory’; defined as a proposed plot by powerful people or organizations working together in secret to accomplish some (usually sinister) goal (e.g., Wood, Douglas & Sutton, 2012).  Current psychological research is exploring the reasons behind why people endorse conspiracy theories, and investigating the impact such theories can have on individuals, and society.  One question that presents itself is: is the impact of conspiracy theories recognised in current UK public policy?  Using anti-vaccine conspiracy theories as a specific case study, this will be explored.

One important area of current psychological research is investigating the impact of conspiracy theories on the individual, and society.  For example, research has shown that conspiracy theories may change the way people think about social events.  After exposure to conspiracy theories about the death of Princess Diana, participants were persuaded to endorse the conspiracy theory account without being aware of it (Douglas & Sutton, 2008).  Further, scholars have experimentally demonstrated that exposure to conspiracy information can be detrimental by reducing pro-environmental intentions and willingness to engage in politics (Butler, Koopman & Zimbardo, 1995; Jolley & Douglas, 2014a).

Conspiracy theories can also have potentially negative consequences for the prevention of diseases.  The development of vaccines is one of the most important advances in the history of medicine.  Indeed, a recent Parliament Postnote discussed how governments should further stimulate vaccine research (Post, 2008).  However, even with increased efforts of policy makers, in recent year’s vaccination rates have declined.  In many regions of the UK rates lie well below the recommended 95% uptake (Health Protection Service, 2013).   One obstacle may be the influence of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories.  Rather, current psychological research has shown exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy information reduces pro-vaccination intentions (Jolley & Douglas, 2014b). Thus, whilst the decrease uptake of vaccines could be for several reasons, it highlights the contributing potential detrimental effect of conspiracy theories.

immunisationCurrent UK public policy is based around voluntary immunisation.  This has been successful in most cases.  However, policy makers do need to take into account ways to effectively approach the ever increasing number of parents in the UK who do not vaccinate their children. Research has shown that detailed information about risk and benefits of immunisations appear to be successful in altering the decision of parents who were initially opposed to vaccination (e.g., Moran, Gainotti, & Petrini, 2008).  Thus, as recently suggested by Fine-Goulden (2010), all parents who have not arranged for their children’s vaccinations should meet with a well-informed healthcare professional who can provide this information face to face and address any particular concerns in a sensitive manner.

However, anti-vaccine conspiracy theories reflect suspicion and mistrust of scientific research examining vaccine efficacy and safety.  Rather, they attempt to explain away overwhelming scientific evidence that vaccines are effective, safe, and necessary (Kata, 2010).  Therefore, such a policy that involves a meeting with a health care professional may not be successful with parents who hold anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs due to their suspicion and mistrust of scientific research.  This clearly demonstrates the importance of current public policy taking in to account conspiracy theories and their impact.

Conspiracy theories are a popular area of conversation, with beliefs seemingly to be increasing over time.  Current psychological research is showing conspiracy theories to be potentially detrimental to us all.  This research is timely in the face of declining vaccination rates, and recent outbreaks of vaccinated-against diseases such as measles. For those parents who hold anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, just being given information about vaccines may not be sufficient to improve their vaccine uptake.  Instead, further interventions need to be explored and tested empirically for those parents who hold anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, which can then inform future public policy. Similarly, such an intervention developed may be fruitful in other domains, such as in policy to encourage pro-environmental engagement.  This clearly highlights the importance of psychological research informing future intervention and public policy.

Posted in Social psychology | Tagged | 222 Comments

The President is Dead: Why Conspiracy Theories About the Death of JFK Endure

November 22nd marks the 50th anniversary of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Over the years, numerous investigations have amassed evidence that Lee Harvey Oswald was the assassin, and failed to find compelling proof that anyone else was involved. Yet the identity of the person who fired the fatal bullet is still a subject of debate among the public. In the run up to the anniversary, the internet has been rife with conspiracy theories surrounding Kennedy’s death. Polls consistently show that conspiracist accounts of the JFK assassination are more widely believed than any other conspiracy theory – most surveys show that a majority of the US public suspects that Lee Harvey Oswald wasn’t acting alone. Why is it that this event, more than any other, captured the conspiracist imagination and refuses to let go?  Continue reading

Posted in Biases & heuristics, Proportionality bias, World events | Tagged , , , , | 56 Comments

PsyPAG Quarterly special issue: The psychology of conspiracy theories

PsyPAGQsept The PsyPAG Quarterly is a publication which is distributed free of charge to all psychology postgraduates in the UK. As an editor of this publication, for the September ’13 edition, I put together a special issue on the psychology of conspiracy theories. You can find a link to the PDF of the full edition below.

You will see articles from the regular faces of this blog – Rob, Christopher, Mike and I, plus one new face – Anthony. We each cover a difference aspect of the psychology of conspiracy theories, and I feel we present an up-to-date overview of the field. The edition also includes some re-print blog posts from each of us.

Please leave us any comments you have about the special issue. It would be great to hear any thoughts.

Special issue: The psychology of conspiracy theories

Posted in Social psychology | 28 Comments

Conspiracy distractions

[I wrote this article two years ago, on the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. It was originally published in The Skeptic magazine.]

On the morning of September 11th, 2011, New York City solemnly remembered the thousands of people who lost their lives in the al-Qaeda terrorist attacks of ten years ago. At the newly completed memorial where the Twin Towers once stood in Lower Manhattan, the names of the 2,977 people who died in the towers, the Pentagon, and on the hijacked airplanes were read by family members and friends. Their voices reverberated for blocks around the subdued streets of the financial district.

But two blocks from the Ground Zero memorial, opposite the peace-ribbon-covered railings of St. Paul’s Chapel at the corner of Broadway and Fulton Street, the victims’ names were drowned out by a general rabble punctuated by chants of “controlled demolition, 9-11” and “three buildings, two planes”. Continue reading

Posted in 9/11, World events | Tagged , , , , | 221 Comments